Wednesday, August 27, 2008

Side Pockets - Keeping Hedge Fund Capital in Their Pockets

In the light of increased regulation, we’re seeing a fair share of interest in side pockets. Without further ado, here’s the low-down:

Side pockets are essentially segregated sub-accounts used by some funds (think hedge funds) to allow them flexibilities in dealing with, and accounting for, illiquid and non-marketable instruments (think CDOs), and potentially other assets.

How, Why?
The fund’s offering and organizational documents should disclose pro forma the extent to which it may transfer fund investments to side pockets.

Side pockets provide a structural mechanism for transferring certain (typically illiquid or hard-to-value) investments into a separate class of the fund. The fund investors’ participation interests are separated in tandem with the assets: only those investors having ownership interests at the time the side pocket is created for a specific investment are exposed to the performance of that “side-pocketed” investment.

This accounting arrangement allows the fund to defer valuation of side-pocketed securities until a valuation or liquidation event occurs, such as the disposal of the security, the bankruptcy of the issuer, or the manager’s transfer of the side-pocketed security back into the fund’s main pool of (liquid) securities.


Importantly, an investor’s liquidity is limited while any investment to which she is exposed is side pocketed.
In other words, an investor cannot fully withdraw from the fund until all side-pocketed investments to which she is exposed are removed from the side pockets. She retains her proportionate share in these side-pocketed investments -- even after completely withdrawing from the fund’s primary investment portfolio -- and is subject to an unlimited lock-up period on this portion, during which she will generally not receive any distribution proceeds.

Management Fees, Accounting Repercussions…

Side pocket investments have typically been valued at cost (as opposed to being marked-to-market) for the period they remain in the side pocket, and so generally excluded from the fund’s NAV calculation for determining performance, fees, redemptions, etc. When side-pocketed assets are not marked-to-market, the fund’s financial statements will not be GAAP compliant; this ability to circumvent evaluating a side-pocketed asset at “fair value” -- and thus the avoidance of certain accounting standards -- may be a primary reason for placing it in a side pocket.

UPDATE - November 7, 2008: Public announcement that GLG Partners ringfenced illiquid investments from its European equities hedge fund


Maeson said...

Perhaps replying a bit on the late side, but I am intrigued by the use of side pockets in fund management and would like to conduct academic research on this topic for my Masters thesis. Do you have any suggestions on a research topic in relation to side pockets?

GP said...


Not sure there's enough here for a Master's dissertation, unless you're approaching this from a psychological perspective - i.e., monitoring the behavior of investors' withdrawal requests pre and post sidepocketing and/or their responsiveness to it. To what extent does the funds' transparency in this matter alleviate vs. accelerate investor concern. You may struggle for data points, though.

Anonymous said...
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Anonymous said...

does a side-pocketed investment need to be fair-valued or held at cost it is being placed into it in order not to result in a qualified oppinion?

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Saurav said...

The fact that the side pockets are illiquid and hard to value makes a case for side pockets being valued at cost. However, in order to be as much transparent shouldnt these liquidity gates be valued at the last available price. For example if a side pocket was initiated on 1.1.2010 with fair price of say $100and the last available value as on 3/3/2010 was $98 and till 6/30/2010 no other value available; shouldnt the side pocket as on 6/30 be valued at the last available price ie $98 instead of $100??